Category Archives for "exhaustion"

Exercising in the Heat

As the temperature beings to rise, athletes must be aware of the effects of exercising in the heat on the body and on performance. Heat loss during exercise can occur through four different processes: evaporation, radiation, conduction, and convection. As the body’s core temperature rises, blood is transported to the periphery for cooling. This leads to a deficit in the body’s central fluid, which results in a smaller stroke volume (volume of blood pumped from the heart) and an increased heart rate for a given exercise intensity. Splanchnic vasoconstriction, a reduction in blood flow to the internal organs, especially to the abdomen, attempts to compensate for the peripheral outflow. However, this may lead to gastrointestinal and kidney issues.

Heat Stroke:

There are various heat illnesses that an athlete may be susceptible to. Exertional heat stroke (EHS) occurs at a body temperature of greater than 104°F (40°C) immediately post collapse and central nervous dysfunction. Symptoms include: headache, confusion, dehydration/muscle cramps, gastrointestinal upset, profuse sweating, rapid pulse, low blood pressure, and quick breathing. To treat EHS, immediately remove equipment and excess clothing. Cool the athlete as quickly as possible within 30 minutes via whole body ice water immersion. However, if this method is unavailable, move to a cool area and rotate cold wet towels. Check for airway, breathing, circulation and continue to monitor vital signs until paramedics arrive. Cease cooling when body temperature reaches approximately 101-102°F (38.2-38.9°C).

DID YOU KNOW?

That heat-related fatalities occurring during sports have more than DOUBLED since 1975. (Source: Korey Stringer Institute)

Heat Exhaustion:

Heat exhaustion is another heat illness commonly experienced by athletes and occurs due to cardiovascular insufficiency and energy depletion that may or may not be associated with physical collapse. Individuals with a body mass index of greater than 27 or exercising at temperatures greater than 33°C are at a higher risk of experiencing heat exhaustion. Symptoms include: fatigue, nausea, weakness, hyperventilation, core body temperature between 96.8-104°F (36-40°C), and heavy sweating. Treatmentbegins with moving the athlete to a cool area and removing equipment or excess clothing. It is important to elevate the legs to promote venous return. Attempt to cool the individual with ice water or fans and rehydrate.

Heat Cramps:

Heat cramps are painful involuntary cramping that often occurs in the legs, arms, or abdomen. Athletes may experience these abnormal muscle contractions if they are prone to excessive sweating, not acclimated to the heat, have heavy clothing or equipment, exercising for prolonged periods without proper hydration, or experiencing muscular fatigue. Similar to the previously mentioned heat illnesses, treatment is to move the athlete to a shaded area, rehydrate with cold water, and stretch or massage the cramped muscle in its fully stretched position. Provide foods that are high in salt content to replenish lost electrolytes from sweating.

General Prevention: 

The best predictor of recovery is early recognition and rapid treatment. Enforce a gradual progression of exercise and acclimation to the heat. Educate athletes on how to recognize heat illnesses and be aware of when to cease activity. Hydrate and rest appropriately throughout training.
InSync Physiotherapy is a multi-award winning health clinic helping you in Sports Injuries, Physiotherapy, Exercise Rehabilitation, Massage Therapy, Acupuncture & IMS.

Effects of Energy Deficiency on Performance

What is the “Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) Syndrome?”

The RED-S syndrome refers to impaired physiological functioning caused by relative energy deficiency and may result in impairments in menstrual function, metabolic rate, bone health, immunity, immunity, or cardiovascular health.
Energy availability (EA) is calculated as energy intake (EI) minus the energy cost of exercise (EE) relative to fat-free mass (FFM). In healthy adults, an energy balance is a value of 45 kcal/kg FFM/day.
Low energy availability is where an individual’s dietary energy intake is insuffient to support the energy expenditure required for health and daily living. It may occur in individuals who are required to diet to enhance performance, are pressured to lose weight, go through frequent weight cycling, overtrain, have recurrent and non-healing injuries, or strict regulations.

What happens if I have low energy?

As seen in the figure above, having low energy availability for your body can result in a number of negative consequences on your athletic performance. From decreased muscle strength to increased injury risk, athletes must be aware of the balance between their dietary energy intake and daily energy expenditure when exercising.  Signs of fatigue, irritability, depression, or weakness should be taken note of and addressed immediately.
Low energy availability may be linked to menstrual dysfunction in females or negatively impact bone health in both females and males. A lower bone mineral density may increase the risk of stress fractures which can have serious long-term consequences.


Treatment Strategies:

For individuals who have low energy availability, treatment involves increasing your energy intake and reduce exercise intensity or frequency. Attempt in implement an eating plan that increases current energy intake by approximately 300 to 600 kcal per day. To optimize bone health, include high-impact loading and resistance training at least 2 to 3 days per week. Intake of calcium and vitamin D are especially important for bone health. Having a food diary and/or exercise log is helpful in tracking your meals as well as exercise intensities to estimate what your daily energy availability is.

Reference: RED-S CAT
InSync Physiotherapy is a multi-award winning health clinic helping you in Sports Injuries, Physiotherapy, Exercise Rehabilitation, Massage Therapy, Acupuncture & IMS.