Category Archives for "active"

What is PNF Stretching?

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation, also known as PNF stretching, is a technique employed to improve muscle elasticity and range of motion. PNF is frequently used by therapists to restore functional range of motion and increase strength capabilities in patients who have sustained soft tissue damage or in post-surgery rehabilitation. It is found that consistent performance of PNF stretching and PNF stretching post-exercise may increase athletic performance by increasing range of motion. It is evident in literature that there are two types of techniques that can be utilized under PNF stretching.

The contract-relax method (CR) includes lengthening the targeted muscle and holding it in that position while the targeted muscle is contracted to its maximum isometrically for a period of time. A short period of relaxation and a passive stretch of the targeted muscle follows this initial contraction phase. The contract-relax-antagonist-contract method (CRAC) begins with the same procedure as the CR method. However, it takes a further step by contracting the antagonist muscle to the targeted muscle instead of passively stretching the targeted muscle.

How to Properly Perform a PNF Stretch:

Contract-Relax (CR) Method:

1) Stretch targeted muscle to the limit of normal range of motion. Contract the targeted muscle group for 5 – 10 seconds while a partner or immovable object such as a band applies sufficient resistance to inhibit movement of the muscle group.

2) Relax the targeted muscle group for 3 – 5 seconds.

3) Have your partner passively stretch the targeted muscle group by applying a controlled, deeper stretch for about 20 – 30 seconds into a greater range of motion.

4) Relax the muscle for approximately 30 seconds before repeating the above process 2 or 3 more times.

Contract-Relax-Antagonist-Contract (CRAC) Method:

1) Stretch targeted muscle to the limit of normal range of motion. Contract the targeted muscle group for 5 – 10 seconds while a partner or immovable object such as a band applies sufficient resistance to inhibit movement of the muscle group.

2) Relax the targeted muscle group for 3 – 5 seconds.

3) Contract the antagonist muscle (opposite to targeted muscle group) for 5 – 10 seconds.

4) After brief period of relaxation, have your partner passively stretch the targeted muscle group by applying a controlled, deeper stretch for about 20 – 30 seconds into a greater range of motion.

5) Relax the muscle for approximately 30 seconds before repeating the above process 2 or 3 more times.

Example of PNF Stretching for the Lower Body: 

Begin by lying on your back with one leg on the floor and the other leg extended and stretched into the limit of your normal range of motion. 

Contract the hamstring of the stretched leg and have your partner resist leg movement. 

Relax the hamstrings then have your partner passively stretch the leg past its normal range of movement.
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How to Safely Exercise When Pregnant

Remaining active during a pregnancy may help reduce some discomforts and help prepare the body for delivery. Acute exercise generally increases oxygen uptake, heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and lung volume during pregnancy. Remember to complete the “PARmed-X for Pregnancy” health screening prior to participation in a prenatal fitness class or other exercise. Medical clearance should be obtained prior to exercise for women who were sedentary prior to pregnancy or have a medical condition.

Benefits:

  • reduced backaches
  • reduced constipation and bloating
  • may help prevent gestational diabetes
  • improved weight management
  • increase in energy
  • improved mood
  • improved posture
  • better sleep patterns
  • development of muscle tone
  • promotes strength and endurance
  • better coping with labour

Contraindications to Exercise:

Absolute Contraindications:

  • hemodynamically significant heart disease
  • restrictive lung disease
  • incompetent cervix/cerciage
  • multiple gestation at risk for premature labour
  • persistent second or third trimester bleeding
  • placenta prevue after 26th week of gestation
  • premature labour during current pregnancy
  • ruptured membranes
  • preeclampsia/pregnancy-induced hypertension

Relative Contraindications:

  • severe anemia
  • unevaluated maternal cardiac dysrhythmia
  • chronic bronchitis
  • poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes mellitus
  • extreme morbid obesity
  • extreme underweight
  • history of extremely sedentary lifestyle
  • intrauterine growth restriction in current pregnancy
  • poorly controlled hypertension
  • orthopaedic limitations
  • poorly controlled seizure disorder
  • poorly controlled hyperthyroidism
  • heavy smoker

Warning Signs to Terminate Exercise Session

  • vaginal bleeding
  • dyspnea before exertion
  • dizziness
  • headache
  • chest pain
  • muscle weakness
  • calf pain or swelling
  • preterm labour
  • decreased fetal movement
  • amniotic fluid leakage

Exercise Recommendations:

Aerobic Exercise

Frequency: 3-4 days per week (women who exercise less than 2 days or greater than 5 days may increase their risk of having a low-birth-weight baby) 
Intensity: Moderate intensity exercise is encouraged for women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) of less than 25 kg per squared meter. However, women with a pre-pregnancy BMI of greater than 25 kg per squared meter should engage in light intensity exercise.
Time: More than 15 minutes per day is recommended. Individuals may gradually increase the duration to a maximum of 30 minutes per day of moderate intensity exercise for a total of 120 minutes per week. A 10-15 minute warm-up before exercise and 10-15 minute cool-down of light physical activity after a training session is recommended. 
Type of Exercise: Use large muscle groups in dynamic, rhythmic physical activities.

Resistance Exercise

One to three sets of 10-15 reps with approximately 2-3 minutes rest in between each set is recommended. Engage in light to moderate resistance exercises. The following are sample routines according to different trimesters from Brad Schoenfeld (NSCA). 

References:
http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-health/exercise-during-pregnancy/
https://www.nsca.com/uploadedfiles/nsca/resources/pdf/certification/quizzes/quiz_pack_articles/october_2011_33.5.pdf
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5 Conditioning Exercises for Rock Climbing

Rock climbing is a fun, but challenging activity that requires strength, endurance, and skill. It is important to strengthen your arms and legs to move up near-vertical or overhanging rock. Having a strong core and torso will help keep the body balanced and up against the wall during the climb. Check out the following exercises below that to help condition your body before you tackle your next mountain or rock climbing wall.


EXERCISES:

1) Pull-ups 

These are an upper body, compound exercise that targets the biceps, latissimus dorsi, and upper back muscles. Use banded pull-ups if body-weight pull-ups are too difficult. Then progress to weighted pull-ups for 4 sets of 10 reps.

a. Hang from a pull-up bar and grasp the bar about shoulder-width apart with palms facing away from your face
b. Retract and adduct the scapula
c. Pull yourself up while bringing your elbows down to the floor until your chin passes the bar
d. Lower yourself all the way down, breathe, and repeat the pull-up

2) Staggered pushups

These engage your entire core as well as target your shoulder and chest muscles. Begin with regular pushups with hands side by side and slowly increase the difficulty by extending your one hand a few inches away from the other in various directions

a. Assume a prone position with your body straight, supported by your extended arms and your toes. Your hands should be outside of shoulder width but staggered, with one being higher than the other. This will be your starting position.
b. Initiate the movement by flexing the elbows, lowering your torso to the ground. Do not allow your hips to rise or to sag
c. Pause at the bottom of the motion, and then extend at the elbows to return to the starting position
d. At the completion of this set, reverse your hand position for the next round.

3) Finger hangs 

Can be performed on a door frame, rock rings, or pull-up bar simulate finger gripping on a rock climbing wall and helps to build hand and arm strength. Hang for five seconds, then rest for another five seconds. Repeat for a full minute. 


4) Weighted step ups 

These help condition your legs for power during a climb. Do 10 – 20 repetitions on each leg. Use a light to moderately heavy barbell or a dumbbell in each hand.


a. Stand facing a bench, step or plyometric box and place the ball of one foot up on the bench
b. Push up into full extension and then jump back to the floor, landing as softly as possible, returning to a squat position.

5) Cable rotations 

These target core strengthening and mobility that can help stabilize the body while moving the body in various positions across a rock wall.

a. Adjust the pulley handle to chest height. Step out and away from the weight. Feet are shoulder-width. Stand with a tight core and flat back. Push the handle out in front of you. Keep elbows slightly bent
b. Twist from the hips. Move arms across the body, achieving a full extension
c. Return to starting position
d. Once complete, do the same amount of sets/reps on the other side.

BONUS: Watch Claire (PT) from INSYNC PHYSIO demonstrate the “Ultimate Workout for Agility and Core” 
InSync Physiotherapy is a multi-award winning health clinic helping you in Sports Injuries, Physiotherapy, Exercise Rehabilitation, Massage Therapy, Acupuncture & IMS.

Exercising in the Cold

With the temperature getting closer to 0°C, many factors including the environment, clothing, body composition, nutrition, age, and exercise intensity in the cold may elicit additional physiologic strain or injury risk beyond that associated with regular conditions. An individual’s core temperature may drop and contribute to hypothermia, frostbite, or diminished exercise capability. Care must be taken into wearing proper clothing and footwear to minimize cold stress to the body or slippage.

Clothing Considerations:

1) Three layers:
a.     inner layer such as lightweight polyester or polypropylene
b.     middle layer such as polyester fleece or wool
c.      outer layer to transfer moisture to the air and repel wind or rain
2) Protect your head, hands, feet, and ears
3) Adjust insulation to minimize sweating
4) Use clothing vents to reduce sweat accumulation
5) Do not wear an outer layer unless rainy or windy
6) Reduce clothing insulation as exercise intensity increases 

Exercise tips:

1)  Check the forecast before heading outside as a combination of wind and cold can penetrate your clothing layers, increasing risk of frostbite
2) Drink plenty of fluids
3) Wear sunscreen or bring heat packs to warm up your hands and feet
4) Know the signs and symptoms of frostbite:
a.     typically occurs when temperatures fall below 0°C (32°F)
b.     more prevalent with exposed skin (e.g. face, hands)
c.      some early signs include: feeling of numbness or stinging
5) Know the signs and symptoms of hypothermia:

a.     abnormally low body temperature (heat production is less than heat loss)
b.     some early signs: shivering, slurred speech, loss of coordination, fatigue
InSync Physiotherapy is a multi-award winning health clinic helping you in Sports Injuries, Physiotherapy, Exercise Rehabilitation, Massage Therapy, Acupuncture & IMS.